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Hannah Ginsborg

Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ About this Item: Paperback. That is, what justifies a person in presuming that others ought to associate sycamores and lindens as she does is not that she must be right about the particular case but that if she does not generally make this presumption, then she could not acquire norm-governed concepts HG The connection between empirical concept acquisition and the puzzle about judgments of beauty should now be obvious. A person can 'demand' that others agree with her judgment of beauty even though she can point to no rule that they would flout in demurring, because she has a general entitlement to assume that her responses to objects are appropriate in the sense that others ought to share them -- because if she does not make this assumption then she would be unable to acquire concepts and so would lack all cognition HG Further, we can see that these two apparently disparate activities involve a common faculty because there is a common task that is performed.

This faculty is thus a 'subjective' i. On Ginsborg's interpretation, Kant's position is that 'To have a faculty of judgment. Since humans are capable of empirical cognition only if they have a faculty that reflects on the appropriateness of their mental activities, that faculty is available to provide an explanation and justification of the unusual feature of judgments of beauty that they demand agreement in the absence of a standard of taste. Again, the justification operates on an abstract level.

A viewer can demand that others also find an object beautiful since he is entitled to assume -- because he must assume -- that other humans respond to objects as he does. Although they involve a common faculty of reflective judgment, judging the beautiful and acquiring a concept differ in important respects. Judgments of the beautiful are aesthetic in that they rest on pleasure felt in experiencing the object 5. This hallmark of aesthetic judgments has been the center of another interpretive and philosophical puzzle about the beautiful. In presenting judgments of taste as aesthetic, I may have suggested that the pleasure comes first.

But Kant is explicit that the reverse is true: 'this merely subjective aesthetic judging of the object, or of the representation through which the object is given, precedes the pleasure in it, and is the ground of this pleasure in the harmony of the faculties of cognition. Commentators have tried to save Kant from himself by suggesting that he does not mean quite what he seems to. Paul Guyer has offered a 'two-act' reading, where the judgment that precedes the pleasure is not the judgment of taste itself but an exercise of the cognitive faculties that precedes the pleasure HG We can appreciate the fruitfulness of Ginsborg's account of reflective judgment by seeing how it allows her to resolve this issue -- which seems far removed from the acquisition of norm-governed concepts.

Let's start with a more precise account of the pleasure at issue. In reflective judging, however, the subject takes her response to be appropriate to the object and so approves of it -- which is a state of mind that provides the basis for its own continuation. So there is one sense in which the judging is the basis of the pleasure but another sense in which the judgment of taste and the pleasure are coeval because both are produced by the reflective or self-referential judging of the aesthetic response to the object as appropriate HG Guyer might object that Ginsborg is also resorting to two acts: the reflective judging and the judgment of taste.

But I think Ginsborg can reasonably reply that there is just a single act of reflective judging that gives rise pleasure as well as to a judgment. Scholars have long asked a basic question about the two halves of the Critique of Judgment.

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What do the beautiful and sublime have to do with any alleged necessity of taking a teleological approach to the study of organisms? One avenue for finding unity across these topics is to connect both to the idea of a purpose. Kant provides a definition of purpose and the related notion of 'purposiveness' in the Introduction.

A purpose is. He maintains that beautiful art is purposive without a purpose 5. It does not aim at some good, yet it can only be understood as possible in accord with purposes. In a similar way, the arrangement of parts in an organism is contingent with respect of the basic laws of matter; yet it is purposive because the possibility of this arrangement can be understood only as the product of a purpose 5.

As Ginsborg notes, the weakness of this approach is not that it is unfaithful to Kant but that it is uninformative. Since there is no determinate concept of the beautiful, beautiful art cannot have been produced by adhering to the rules governing that concept. Nor can we assume that organisms were produced through the concepts of a creator. If the connections to a concept and a designer are severed, however, then what is left in the thesis that these two disparate things, beautiful art and natural organisms, are similar in being purposive?

It should be no surprise that Ginsborg's answer is that what is common to both -- purposiveness without purposes -- is normativity without norms. Just as a judgment of taste does not rely on an external standard, the judgment that a horseshoe crab 'ought' to have eight legs does not depend on an appeal to the purpose of an actual designer.

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Nor can it depend -- in the first instance -- on the concept of a 'normal' horseshoe crab HG However, the judgment that something is beautiful or sublime is made with the belief that other people ought to agree with this judgment — even though it is known that many will not. The force of this "ought" comes from a reference to a sensus communis — a community of taste.

Hannah Arendt , in her Lectures on Kant's Political Philosophy , suggests the possibility that this sensus communis might be the basis of a political theory that is markedly different from the one that Kant lays out in the Metaphysic of Morals.

A Commentary on Kant's Critique of Judgement: 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge

The judgment that something is beautiful is a claim that it possesses the "form of finality" — that is, that it appears to have been designed with a purpose, even though it does not have any apparent practical function. In this regard, Kant further distinguishes between free and adherent beauty.

Whereas judgments of free beauty are made without having one determinate concept for the object being judged e. The main difference between these two judgments is that purpose or use of the object plays no role in the case of free beauty. In contrast, adherent judgments of beauty are only possible if the object is not ill-suited for its purpose.

The judgment that something is sublime is a judgment that it is beyond the limits of comprehension — that it is an object of fear. However, Kant makes clear that the object must not actually be threatening — it merely must be recognized as deserving of fear. Kant's view of the beautiful and the sublime is frequently read as an attempt to resolve one of the problems left following his depiction of moral law in the Critique of Practical Reason — namely that it is impossible to prove that we have free will , and thus impossible to prove that we are bound under moral law.

The beautiful and the sublime both seem to refer to some external noumenal order — and thus to the possibility of a noumenal self that possesses free will. In this section of the critique Kant also establishes a faculty of mind that is in many ways the inverse of judgment — the faculty of genius.

Whereas judgment allows one to determine whether something is beautiful or sublime, genius allows one to produce what is beautiful or sublime. The second half of the Critique discusses teleological judgement. This way of judging things according to their ends telos : Greek for end is logically connected to the first discussion at least regarding beauty but suggests a kind of self- purposiveness that is, meaningfulness known by one's self.

Kant writes about the biological as teleological , claiming that there are things, such as living beings, whose parts exist for the sake of their whole and their whole for the sake of their parts. This allows him to open a gap in the physical world: since these "organic" things cannot be brought under the rules that apply to all other appearances, what are we to do with them? This portion of the Critique is, from some modern theories, where Kant is most radical; he posits man as the ultimate end, that is, that all other forms of nature exist for the purpose of their relation to man, directly or not, and that man is left outside of this due to his faculty of reason.

Kant claims that culture becomes the expression of this, that it is the highest teleological end, as it is the only expression of human freedom outside of the laws of nature. Man also garners the place as the highest teleological end due to his capacity for morality, or practical reason, which falls in line with the ethical system that Kant proposes in the Critique of Practical Reason and the Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals. Kant attempted to legitimize purposive categories in the life sciences, without a theological commitment.

He recognized the concept of purpose has epistemological value for finality, while denying its implications about creative intentions at life and the universe's source.


Kant described natural purposes as organized beings, meaning that the principle of knowledge presupposes living creatures as purposive entities. He called this supposition the finality concept as a regulative use , which satisfies living beings specificity of knowledge. Such entities appear to be self-organizing in patterns.

An Introduction to Kant's 'Critique of Judgement'

Kant's ideas allowed Johann Friedrich Blumenbach and his followers to formulate the science of types morphology and to justify its autonomy. Kant held that there was no purpose represented in the aesthetic judgement of an object's beauty. A pure aesthetic judgement excludes the object's purpose. Though Kant consistently maintains that the human mind is not an " intuitive understanding "—something that creates the phenomena which it cognizes—several of his readers starting with Fichte , culminating in Schelling believed that it must be and often give Kant credit.

Kant's discussions of schema and symbol late in the first half of the Critique of Judgement also raise questions about the way the mind represents its objects to itself, and so are foundational for an understanding of the development of much late 20th century continental philosophy : Jacques Derrida is known to have studied the book extensively.

In Truth and Method , Hans-Georg Gadamer rejects Kantian aesthetics as ahistorical in his development of a historically-grounded hermeneutics.